Chapter 13 – Dimensions (part 2)

Beyond the Rest of Us – Writing these chapters of the book was not easy. When James and Alexei escape from the Egg Castle in a wormhole of plasma, they travel back to another dimension on the Caribbean Island of Monserrat, feeling very sick.

Alexei, it’s alright. It’s me, James. You’ve just travelled to a different dimension and it always feels awful at first until the cells in your body are reconnected again,” he said.

As we saw in the last post, there are at least three recognized dimensions in Science. The first dimension exists on a line. The second dimension exists on a plane and the third dimension is found in three-dimensional space. The physical 4th dimension is basically the dimension expanded in every dimension, perpendicularly, by 1 degree in every direction. But, we also have a Metaphysical 4th dimension, that relates to what some call the ‘tesseract’, or the travel form of the 4th dimension. Up until now this has been the realm of Science Fiction writers, but mainstream science is catching up.

The insight by Einstein that relates mass and energy has been linked to the creation of a new kind of physics and the birth of the atomic age. Leonard Susskind, professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University, and one of the founders of string theory, has proposed a new equation that may have a transformative effect:  ER=EPR.

“ER=EPR” promises to reconcile general relativity with quantum mechanics.

The letters in the equation actually stand for the names of a few heavyweights from the world of physics. “ER” means Einstein and Nathan Rosen, and, in particular, evokes a 1935 paper they wrote describing wormholes (“Einstein-Rosen bridges”), which are essentially tunnels between different times and spaces in the Universe. “EPR” stands for Einstein, Rosen and Boris Podolsky, who together wrote another paper this time on quantum entanglement, the proposed phenomenon whereby “entangled” particles can influence each other at great distances. The unifying equation was actually first described in the paper by Susskind and physicist Juan Maldacena in 2013, but Susskind just published a paper describing the implications of such insight. In his new paper on the subject, Susskind writes: “ER=EPR tells us that the immensely complicated network of entangled subsystems that comprises the universe is also an immensely complicated (and technically complex) network of Einstein-Rosen bridges. To me it seems obvious that if ER=EPR is true it is a very big deal, and it must affect the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics.”

What Susskind implies is that entangled particles may be connected by something like quantum wormholes. In fact, even black holes can be connected via wormholes. Since wormholes are contortions of space-time geometry — described by Einstein’s gravitational equations — identifying them with quantum entanglement would forge a link between gravity and quantum mechanics.

Watch a lecture where Susskind discusses ER=EPR here: